Solar PV

Organic and Perovskite flexible solar cells hold great promise due to their low cost, high efficiency, and potential for flexible and transparent applications. However, challenges on stability and cost for scaled up production mean that these technologies are not widely adapted yet. Spatial ALD can help solve these problems. 

Durable PV at a low cost 

Perovskite and other organic materials used in flexible solar cells are highly sensitive to moisture, oxygen, heat and UV light. Exposure to these elements can lead to rapid degradation, reducing the operational lifespan. To ensure that these solar cells can maintain the required level of performance over 20 years, effective encapsulation techniques are needed.  

Spatial ALD is the only alternative that can provide reliable encapsulation at a competitive price point. The applied layers are not only pinhole-free, but also provide the flexibility that is required for wide-spread commercial implementation.  

Improved efficiency at industrial scale 

Spatial ALD can also be used to deposit thin layers of metal oxides as Energy Transport Layer (ETL) or Hole transport layer (HTL), improving charge transport and extraction efficiency. Buffer layers between the active layers and the electrodes applied with spatial ALD can be made extremely thin, improving the interface between these layers and thereby enhancing charge extraction and reducing energy barriers.  

Kalpana Systems’ superspatial ALD technology allows for faster deposition rates at low temperatures, making it suitable for temperature sensitive, large-area applications like perovskite solar cells.  

Other applications


Superspatial ALD is the only system that can meet uptime and throughput requirements of the packaging industry.


Both Lithium-ion batteries and solid-state batteries gain better stability, improved lifetime and safety thanks to Superspatial ALD coating.


Spatial ALD provides the pinhole free moisture and oxygen barriers at low cost that flexible OLED manufacturers are demanding.